Report from 14th annual convention (Reparations)
by J. Damu

Dr. Imari Obadele

Dallas – A five-year plan has been adopted by the nation’s principle 
reparations organization to bring the issue of black reparations before the 
people and Congress of the United States.

In addition to the legal work already being implemented by the National 
Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America (N’COBRA), new initiatives to 
build increased support for Congressman John Conyers’ African-American 
Reparations Study Bill (H.R. 40), the launching of Black Fridays to support 
black businesses and a strengthened media approach to reparations will take 
the reparations movement to a new level, said Ajamu Sankofa, the newly 
elected national secretary of N’COBRA.

“Now, N’COBRA members, let’s seize this time and roll up our sleeves and get 
busy implementing this plan. Our plan will not work if we do not work the 
plan. We are moving to the next higher level of Reparations activism! The 
ancestors are pushing us. Can you feel it?” he said.

Dorothy Benton Lewis, NCOBRA’s national co-chair, said, “Now we must go 
forth and multiply.”

Discussion and reports within the well attended convention seemed to 
indicate the two most significant accomplishments of N’COBRA during the past 
year were the filing of the Tulsa, Okla., lawsuit for damages from the 1921 
white terrorism against blacks and the highly visible and successful A Year 
of Black Presence support campaign for H.R. 40 on Capital Hill.

Adjoa Aiyetoro, co-chair of the national Reparations Coordinating Committee 
and N’COBRA’s leading attorney, reported the Tulsa lawsuit was filed in 
February.

The media tries to marginalize us,” Aiyetoro said, and “we need to be more 
aggressive in uplifting our role so that others know we are active.” 
Aiyetoro said the media likes to focus on established personalities like 
Johnny Cochran and Charles Ogletree because they have had extensive media 
exposure in the past. By trying to marginalize N’COBRA, she said, the media 
tries to isolate the reparations lawsuits from grassroots movements.

The other new development in the reparations movement was the support 
campaign, A Year of Black Presence. This campaign, hugely successful by all 
accounts, was designed to put N’COBRA members in the face of Congress 
members all year long - arguing, cajoling and pressuring them to sign on to 
H.R. 40.

The Reparations Study Bill, first introduced into Congress in 1989, has 
never even been voted out of sub-committee. Some within the reparations 
movement have written the bill off as too mild. N’COBRA and some others take 
a different tack.

“Because H.R. 40 is so weak,” said Milton McGriff, national coordinator for 
the AYBP Coalition, “it is at the bottom of the reparations food chain, so 
to speak. It is the point where we can engage the most number of people.”

McGriff went on to say the reparations movement is dealing with a Congress 
that cares little or nothing about black people. He said N’COBRA needs to 
educate people that reparations are not only long overdue but necessary in 
order for the black community to grow and prosper.

“We intend to get 100 percent of the Congressional Black Caucus to sign onto 
this bill before the end of the year,” McGriff said. “It’s sad that those 
CBC members who have not signed on come from Southern states where our 
ancestors suffered much of the horror of life in America,” he said.

The other new initiative that generated excitement and enthusiasm among the 
audience was the proposal to promote a campaign to support black businesses 
that support reparations.

Black Fridays would educate the black-owned and operated business community 
to understand the fundamental necessity of winning reparations if black 
people are ever to gain control of the economy of the Black community. 
Sankofa said that Black business would be encouraged to display the Black 
Friday poster, hand out cards promoting reparations and to work together to 
promote the benefit of the black community.

Beyond the issues of current litigation sits and building political support 
for H.R. 40,and Black Fridays other questions attracted intensive discussion 
at the convention.

The issue of land was an issue of intense interest and importance. Dr. Imari 
Obadele and Baba Hannibal Afrik, the newly elected national co-chair of 
N’COBRA, both venerable leaders and founders of the Republic of New Afrika, 
spoke of their more than 30-year quest to promote a black state within the 
U.S.

Afrik spoke at length on how he thought such a state could be effectively 
administered. Obadele continued by giving background information on legal 
tactics he had devised over the years to challenge the U.S. on the issue.

Obadele also outlined his vision of how land owned, controlled and 
administered by blacks could be used to rehabilitate blacks who are 
currently incarcerated and victims of alcohol and drug abuse. Echoing the 
Cuban revolutionary hero Che Guevarra, Obadele said, “A new Afrikan 
personality can be created within our own land.”

If a place of peace and security can be fixed, he said, people coming out of 
prison can be transformed into people of consciousness who desire to lead 
progressive lives and make contributions for the general good. People would 
be able to transform themselves into positive people, proud of their 
ancestors and themselves, he told the audience.

Other participants at the convention, held at Dallas’s black Paul Quinn 
College, included Deadria Farmer-Paellman of the Reparations Study Group, 
former Massachusetts state Sen. Bill Owens, Dr. Maulana Karenga of US, 
Esther Stanford and Cikiah Thomas, respectively of England and Canada of the 
Global Afrikan Congress, and Conrad Worrill of the National Black United 
Front, who said the key to building the reparations movement was to 
“Grassroots organize! Grassroots organize! Grassroots organize!”

For more information, call Gigi Gregory at (415) 922-3954 or Damu at (415) 
931-3530.

-===============================================================

Billions for the Bankers, Debt for the People
The Real Story of the Money-Control Over America

by Pastor Sheldon Emry

"If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of their money, first by inflation and
then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them (around the banks), will
deprive the people of their property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent their
fathers conquered." Thomas Jefferson 

Americans, living in what is called the richest nation on earth, seem always to be short of money. Wives are working in
unprecedented numbers, husbands hope for overtime hours to earn more, or take part-time jobs evenings and weekends,
children look for odd jobs for spending money, the family debt climbs higher, and psychologists say one of the biggest
causes of family quarrels and breakups is "arguments over money." Much of this trouble can be traced to our present
"debt-money" system. Too few Americans realize why our founding fathers wrote into Article I of the U.S. Constitution:
Congress shall have the Power to Coin Money and Regulate the Value Thereof. 

They did this, as we will show, in prayerful hope it would prevent "love of money" from destroying the Republic they had
founded. We shall see how subversion of Article I has brought upon us the horrors of which Jefferson had warned.

MONEY IS MAN'S ONLY "CREATION" 
Economists use the term "create" when speaking of the process by which money comes into existence. Now, creation
means making something that did not exist before. Lumbermen make boards from trees, workers build houses from lumber,
and factories manufacture automobiles from metal, glass and other materials. But in all these they did not "create," they
only changed existing materials into a more usable and, therefore, more valuable form. This is not so with money. Here, and
here alone, man actually "creates" something out of nothing. A piece of paper of little value is printed so that it is worth a
piece of lumber. With different figures it can buy the automobile or even the house. Its value has been "created" in the true
meaning of the word 

MONEY "CREATING" PROFITABLE
As is seen by the above, money is very cheap to make, and whoever does the "creating" of money in a nation can make a
tremendous profit! Builders work hard to make a profit of 5% above their cost to build a house. 

Auto makers sell their cars for 1% to 2% above the cost of manufacture and it is considered good business. But money
"manufacturers" have no limit on their profits, since a few cents will print a $1 bill or a $10,000 bill. 

That profit is part of our story, but first let us consider another unique characteristic of the thing - money, the love of which
is the "root of all evil." 

ADEQUATE MONEY SUPPLY NEEDED
An adequate supply of money is indispensable to civilized society. We could forego many other things, but without
money industry would grind to a halt, farms would become only self-sustaining units, surplus food would disappear, jobs
requiring the work of more than one man or one family would remain undone, shipping, and large movements of goods
would cease, hungry people would plunder and kill to remain alive, and all government except family or tribe would cease to
function. 

An overstatement, you say? Not at all. Money is the blood of civilized society, the means of all commercial trade except
simple barter. It is the measure and the instrument by which one product is sold and another purchased. Remove money or
even reduce the supply below that which is necessary to carry on current levels of trade, and the results are catastrophic.
For an example, we need only look at America's Depression of the early 1930's. 

THE BANKERS DEPRESSION OF THE 1930's
In 1930 America did not lack industrial capacity, fertile-farm land, skilled and willing workers or industrious farm families. It
had an extensive and highly efficient transportation system in railroads, road networks, and inland and ocean waterways.
Communications between regions and localities were the best in the world, utilizing telephone, teletype, radio, and a
well-operated government mail system. No war had ravaged the cities or the countryside, no pestilence weakened the
population, nor had famine stalked the land. The United States of America in 1930 lacked only one thing: an adequate
supply of money to carry on trade and commerce. In the early 1930's, Bankers, the only source of new money and credit,
deliberately refused loans to industries, stores and farms. 

Payments on existing loans were required however, and money rapidly disappeared from circulation. Goods were available
to be purchased, jobs waiting to be done, but the lack of money brought the nation to a standstill. By this simple ploy
America was put in a "depression" and the greedy Bankers took possession of hundreds of thousands of farms, homes,
and business properties. The people were told, "times are hard," and "money is short." Not understanding the system,
they were cruelly robbed of their earnings, their savings, and their property. 

MONEY FOR PEACE? NO! MONEY FOR WAR? YES!
World War II ended the "depression." The same Bankers who in the early 30's had no loans for peacetime houses, food
and clothing, suddenly had unlimited billions to lend for Army barracks, K-rations and uniforms! A nation that in 1934
couldn't produce food for sale, suddenly could produce bombs to send free to Germany and Japan! (More on this riddle
later.) 

With the sudden increase in money, people were hired, farms sold their produce, factories went to two shifts, mines
re-opened, and "The Great Depression" was over! Some politicians were blamed for it and others took credit for ending it.
The truth is the lack of money (caused by the Bankers) brought on the depression, and adequate money ended it. The
people were never told that simple truth and in this article we will endeavor to show how these same Bankers who control
our money and credit have used their control to plunder America and place us in bondage. 

POWER TO COIN AND REGULATE MONEY
When we can see the disastrous results of an artificially created shortage of money, we can better understand why our
Founding Fathers insisted on placing the power to "create" money and the power to control it ONLY in the hands of the
Federal Congress. They believed that ALL citizens should share in the profits of its "creation" and therefore the national
government must be the ONLY creator of money. They further believed that ALL citizens, of whatever State or Territory, or
station in life would benefit by an adequate and stable currency and therefore, the national government must also be, by
law, the ONLY controller of the value of money. 

Since the Federal Congress was the only legislative body subject to all the citizens at the ballot box, it was, to their minds,
the only safe depository of so much profit and so much power. They wrote it out in the simple, but all-inclusive: "Congress
shall have the Power to Coin Money and Regulate the Value Thereof." 

HOW THE PEOPLE LOST CONTROL TO THE FEDERAL RESERVE 
Instead of the Constitutional method of creating our money and putting it into circulation, we now have an entirely
unconstitutional system. This has resulted in almost disastrous conditions, as we shall see. 

Since our money was handled both legally and illegally before 1913, we shall consider only the years following 1913, since
from that year on, ALL of our money has been created and issued by an illegal method that will eventually destroy the
United States if it is not changed. Prior to 1913, America was a prosperous, powerful, and growing nation, at peace with its
neighbors and the envy of the world. But - in December of 1913, Congress, with many members away for the Christmas
holidays, passed what has since been known as the FEDERAL RESERVE ACT. (For the full story of how this infamous
legislation was forced through our Congress, read The Creature from Jekyll Island, by G. Edward Griffin or Conquest or
Consent, by W. B. Vennard). Omitting the burdensome details, it simply authorized the establishment of a Federal Reserve
Corporation, with a Board of Directors (The Federal Reserve Board) to run it, and the United States was divided into 12
Federal Reserve "Districts." 

This simple, but terrible, law completely removed from Congress the right to "create" money or to have any control over its
"creation," and gave that function to the Federal Reserve Corporation. This was done with appropriate fanfare and
propaganda that this would "remove money from politics" (they didn't say "and therefore from the people's control") and
prevent "Boom and Bust" from hurting our citizens. The people were not told then, and most still do not know today, that
the Federal Reserve Corporation is a private corporation controlled by bankers and therefore is operated for the financial
gain of the bankers over the people rather than for the good of the people. The word "Federal" was used only to deceive
the people. 

MORE DISASTROUS THAN PEARL HARBOR 
Since that "day of infamy," more disastrous to us than Pearl Harbor, the small group of "privileged" people who lend us
"our" money have accrued to themselves all of the profits of printing our money' - and more! Since 1913 they have
"created" tens of billions of dollars in money and credit, which, as their own personal property, they then lend to our
government and our people at interest. "The rich get richer and the poor get poorer" had become the secret policy of our
National Government. An example of the process of "creation" and its conversion to people's "debt" will aid our
understanding. 

THEY PRINT IT - WE BORROW IT AND PAY THEM INTEREST 
We shall start with the need for money. The Federal Government, having spent more than it has taken from its citizens in
taxes, needs, for the sake of illustration, $1,000,000,000. Since it does not have the money, and Congress has given away its
authority to "create" it, the Government must go the "creators" for the $1 billion. But, the Federal Reserve, a private
corporation, doesn't just give its money away! The Bankers are willing to deliver $1,000,000,000 in money or credit to the
Federal Government in exchange for the Government's agreement to pay it back - with interest! So Congress authorizes the
Treasury Department to print $1,000,000,000 in U.S. Bonds, which are then delivered to the Federal Reserve Bankers. 

The Federal Reserve then pays the cost of printing the $1,000,000,000 (about $1,000) and makes the exchange. The
Government then uses the money to pay its obligations. What are the results of this fantastic transaction? Well, $1 billion
in Government bills are paid all right, but the Government has now indebted the people to the Bankers for $1 billion on
which the people must pay interest! Tens of thousands of such transactions have taken place since 1913 so that by the
1980's, the U.S. Government is indebted. to the Bankers for over $1,000,000,000,000 (trillion) on which the people pay over
$100 billion a year in interest alone with no hope of ever paying off the principal. Supposedly our children and following
generations will pay forever and forever! 

AND THERE'S MORE
You say, "This is terrible!" Yes, it is, but we have shown only part of the sordid story. Under this unholy system, those
United States Bonds have now become "assets" of the Banks in the Reserve System which they then use as "reserves" to
"create" more "credit" to lend. Current "fractional reserve" requirements allow them to use that $1 billion in bonds to
"create" as much as $15 billion in new "credit" to lend to States, Municipalities, to individuals and businesses. Added to
the original $1 billion, they could have $16 billion of "created credit" out in loans paying them interest with their only cost
being $1,000 for printing the original $1 billion! Since the U.S. Congress has not issued Constitutional money since 1863
(over 100 years), in order for the people to have money to carry on trade and commerce they are forced to borrow the
"created credit" of the Monopoly Bankers and pay them usury-interest! 

AND THERE'S STILL MORE
In addition to the vast wealth drawn to them through this almost unlimited usury, the Bankers who control the money at
the top are able to approve or disapprove large loans to large and successful corporations to the extent that refusal of a
loan will bring about a reduction in the price that that Corporation's stock sells for on the market. After depressing the
price, the Bankers' agents buy large blocks of the stock, after which the sometimes multi-million dollar loan is approved, the
stock rises, and is then sold for a profit. In this manner billions of dollars are made with which to buy more stock. This
practice is so refined today that the Federal Reserve Board need only announce to the newspapers an increase or decrease
in their "rediscount rate" to send stocks up and down as they wish. Using this method since 1913, the Bankers and their
agents have purchased secret or open control of almost every large corporation in America. Using that control, they then
force the corporations to borrow huge sums from their banks so that corporation earnings are siphoned off in the form of
interest to the banks. This leaves little as actual "profits" which can be paid as dividends and explains why stock prices are
often depressed, while the banks reap billions in interest from corporate loans. In effect, the bankers get almost all of the
profits, while individual stockholders are left holding the bag. 

The millions of working families of America are now indebted to the few thousand Banking Families for twice the assessed
value of the entire United States. And these Banking Families obtained that debt against us for the cost of paper, ink, and
bookkeeping! 

THE INTEREST AMOUNT IS NEVER CREATED
The only way new money (which is not true money, but is "credit" representing a debt), goes into circulation in America is
when it is borrowed from Bankers. When the State and people borrow large sums, we seem to prosper. However, the
Bankers "create" only the amount of the principal of each loan, never the extra amount needed to pay the interest.
Therefore. the new money never equals the new debt added. The amounts needed to pay the interest on loans is not
"created," and therefore does not exist! 

Under this kind of a system, where new debt always exceeds the new money no matter how much or how little is borrowed,
the total debt increasingly outstrips the amount of money available to pay the debt. The people can never, ever get out of
debt! 

An example will show the viciousness of this usury-debt system with its "built-in" shortage of money. 

IF $60,000 IS BORROWED, $255,931.20 MUST BE PAID BACK When a citizen goes to a Banker to borrow $60,000 to
purchase a home or a farm, the Bank clerk has the borrower agree to pay back the loan plus interest. At 14% interest for 30
years, the Borrower must agree to pay $710.92 per month for a total of $255,931.20. The clerk then requires the citizen to
assign to the Banker the right of ownership of the property if the Borrower does not make the required payments. The Bank
clerk then gives the Borrower a $60,000 check or a $60,000 deposit slip crediting the Borrower's checking account with
$60,000. 

The Borrower then writes checks to the builder, subcontractors, etc., who in turn write checks. $60,000 of new "checkbook"
money is thereby added to "money in circulation." 

However, and this is the fatal flaw in a usury system, the only new money created and put into circulation is the amount of
the loan, $60,000. The money to pay the interest is NOT created, and therefore was NOT added to "money in circulation." 

Even so, this Borrower (and those who follow him in ownership of the property) must earn and TAKE OUT OF
CIRCULATION $255,931, almost $200,000 MORE than he put IN CIRCULATION when he borrowed the original $60,000!
(By the way, it is this interest which cheats all families out of nicer homes. It is not that they can't afford them; it is because
the Banker's usury forces them to pay for 4 homes to get one!) 

Every new loan puts the same process in operation. Each borrower adds a small sum to the total money supply when he
borrows, but the payments on the loan (because of interest) then deduct a much LARGER sum from the total money
supply. 

There is therefore no way all debtors can pay off the money-lenders. As they pay the principal and interest, the money in
circulation disappears. All they can do is struggle against each other, borrowing more and more from the money-lenders
each generation. The money-lenders (Bankers), who produce nothing of value, slowly, then more rapidly, gain a death grip
on the land, buildings, and present and future earnings of the whole working population.

SMALL LOANS DO THE SAME THING 
If you haven't quite grasped the impact of the above, let us consider a small auto loan for 3 years at 18% interest. Step 1:
Citizen borrows $5,000 and pays it into circulation (it goes to the dealer, factory, miner, etc.) and signs a note agreeing to
pay the Banker $6,500. Step 2: Citizen pays $180 per month of his earnings to the Banker. In 3 years he will take OUT of
circulation $1,500 more than he put IN circulation. 

Every loan of Banker "created" money (credit) causes the same thing to happen. Since this has happened millions of times
since 1913 (and continues today), you can see why America has gone from a prosperous, debt-free nation to a debt-ridden
nation where practically every home, farm and business is paying usury-tribute to some Banker. The usury-tribute to the
Bankers on personal, local, State and Federal debt totals more than the combined earnings of 25% of the working people.
Soon it will be 50% and continue up. 

THIS IS WHY BANKERS PROSPER IN GOOD TIMES OR BAD 
In the millions of transactions made each year like those above, little actual currency changes hands, nor is it necessary
that it do so. 95% of all "cash" transactions in the U.S. are by check, so the Banker is perfectly safe in "creating" that
so-called "loan" by writing the check or deposit slip, not against actual money, but AGAINST YOUR PROMISE TO PAY
IT BACK! The cost to him is paper, ink and a few dollars in salaries and office costs for each transaction. It is
"check-kiting" on an enormous scale. The profits increase rapidly, year after year, as shown below. 

These are a few taken from Arizona newspapers in January, 1979. 

Valley Bank posts 49% gain in profits 

Gains of 49 percent in net income and 51 percent in operating income were posted last year by Valley
National Bank. 

Those gains brought net income to $33,969,-000' in the year ended Dec..31 and operating income to
$34,459.000. The year before those totals were $22,836.000 and $22,807,000 respectively. 

Bank's profits rise 21% 
Arizona Bank announced on Monday it had achieved a 21.2 percent increase in net income in 1978 over
1977. On the basis of operating income, excluding the 1977 sale of the Arizona Bank Building for
$l,336,369, the bank said the increase was 43.9 percent. 

Tostenrud said loans and deposits increased in the last year: Deposits 18.8 percent to $1.353 billion and
loans 21.9 percent to $951 million. 

THE COST TO YOU? EVENTUALLY, EVERYTHING!
In 1910 the U.S. Federal debt was only $1 billion, or $12.40 per citizen. State and local debts were practically non-existent. 

By 1920, after only 6 years of Federal Reserve shenanigans, the Federal debt had jumped to $24 billion, or $226 per person. 

In 1960 the Federal debt reached $284 billion, or $1,575 per citizen and State and local debts were mushrooming. 

By 1981 the Federal debt passed $1 trillion and was growing exponentially as the Banker's tripled the interest rates. State
and local debts are now MORE than the Federal, and with business and personal debts totaled over $6 trillion, 3 times the
value of all land and buildings in America. 

If we signed over to the money-leaders all of America we would still owe them 2 more Americas (plus their usury, of
course!) 

However, they are too cunning to take title to everything. They will instead leave you with some "illusion of ownership" so
you and your children will continue to work and pay the Bankers more of your earnings on ever-increasing debts. The
"establishment" has captured our people with their ungodly system of usury and debt as certainly as if they had marched
in with a uniformed army. 

FOR THE GAMBLERS AMONG MY READERS
To grasp the truth that periodic withdrawal of money through interest payments will inexorably transfer all wealth in the
nation to the receiver of interest, imagine yourself in a poker or dice game where everyone must buy the chips (the medium
of exchange) from a "banker" who does not risk chips in the game, but watches the table and every hour reaches in and
takes 10% to 15% of all the chips on the table. As the game goes on, the amount of chips in the possession of each player
will go up and down with his "luck." 

However, the TOTAL number of chips available to play the game (carry on trade and business) will decrease rapidly. 

The game will get low on chips, and some will run out. If they want to continue to play, they must buy or borrow them from
the "banker." The "banker" will sell (lend) them ONLY if the player signs a "mortgage" agreeing to give the "banker" some
real property (car, home, farm, business, etc.) if he cannot make periodic payments to pay back all of the chips plus some
EXTRA ones (interest). The payments must be made on time, whether he wins (makes a profit) or not. 

It is easy to see that no matter how skillfully they play, eventually the "banker" will end up with all of his original chips
back, and except for the very best players, the rest, if they stay in long enough, will lose to the "banker" their homes, their
farms, their businesses, perhaps even their cars, watches, rings, and the shirts off their backs! 

Our real-life situation is MUCH WORSE than any poker game. In a poker game none is forced to go into debt, and anyone
can quit at any time and keep whatever he still has. But in real life, even if we borrow little ourselves from the Bankers, the
local, State, and Federal governments borrow billions in our name, squander it, then confiscate our earnings from us and
pay it back to the Bankers with interest. We are forced to play the game, and none can leave except by death. We pay as
long as we live, and our children pay after we die. If we cannot pay, the same government sends the police to take our
property and give it to the Bankers. The Bankers risk nothing in the game; they just collect their percentage and "win it all."
In Las Vegas and at other gambling centers, all games are "rigged" to pay the owner a percentage, and they rake in millions.
The Federal Reserve Bankers' "game" is also rigged, and it pays off in billions! 

In recent years Bankers added real "cards" to their 'game. "Credit" cards are promoted as a convenience and a great boon
to trade. Actually, they are ingenious devices by which Bankers collect 2% to 5% of every retail sale from the seller and
18% interest from buyers. A real "stacked" deck! 

YES, IT'S POLITICAL, TOO!
Democrat, Republican, and Independent voters who have wondered why politicians always spend more tax money than
they take in should now see the reason. When they begin to study our "debt-money" system, they soon realize that these
politicians are not the agents of the people but are the agents of the Bankers, for whom they plan ways to place the people
further-in debt. It takes only a little imagination to see that if Congress had been "creating," and spending or issuing into
circulation the necessary increase in the money supply, THERE WOULD BE NO NATIONAL DEBT, and the over $4
Trillion of other debts would be practically non-existent. Since there would be no ORIGINAL cost of money except printing,
and no CONTINUING costs such as interest, Federal taxes would be almost nil. Money, once in circulation, would remain
their and go on serving its purpose as a medium of exchange for generation after generation and century after century, just
as coins do now, with NO payments to the Bankers whatever! 

MOUNTING DEBTS AND WARS 
But instead of peace and debt-free prosperity, we have ever-mounting debt and periodic wars. We as a people are now
ruled by a system of Banker-owned Mammon that has usurped the mantle of government, disguised itself as our legitimate
government, and set about to pauperize and control our people. It is now a centralized, all-powerful political apparatus
whose main purposes are promoting war, spending the peoples' money, and propagandizing to perpetuate itself in power.
Our two large political parties have become its servants, the various departments of government its spending agencies, and
the Internal Revenue its collection agency. 

Unknown to the people, it operates in close cooperation with similar apparatuses in other nations. which are also disguised
as "governments." Some, we are told, are friends. Some, we are told, are enemies. "Enemies" are built up through
international manipulations and used to frighten the American people into going billions of dollars more into debt to the
Bankers for "military preparedness," "foreign aid to stop communism," "minority rights," etc. Citizens, deliberately
confused by brainwashing propaganda, watch helplessly while our politicians give our food, goods, and money to
Banker-controlled alien governments under the guise of "better relations" and "easing tensions." Our Banker-controlled
government takes our finest and bravest sons and sends them into foreign wars with obsolete equipment and inadequate
training, where tens of thousands are murdered, and hundreds of thousands are crippled. Other thousands are morally
corrupted, addicted to drugs, and infected with venereal and other diseases, which they bring back to the United States.
When the "war" is over, we have gained nothing, but we are scores of billions of dollars more in debt to the Bankers, which
was the reason for the "war" in the first place! 

BUT WAIT... THERE'S STILL MORE 
The profits from these massive debts have been used to erect a complete and almost hidden economic and political
colossus over our nation. They keep telling us they are trying to do us "good," when in truth they work to bring harm and
injury to our people. These would-be despots know it is easier to control and rob an ill, poorly-educated and confused
people than it is a healthy and intelligent population, so they deliberately prevent real cures for diseases, they degrade our
educational systems, and they stir up social and racial unrest. For the same reason they favor drug use, alcohol, sexual
promiscuity, abortion, pornography, and crime. Everything which debilitates the minds and bodies of the people is secretly
encouraged, as it makes the people less able to oppose them or even to understand what is being done to them.

Family, morals, love of Country, the Christian religion, all that is honorable is being swept away, while they try to build their
new, subservient man. Our new "rulers" are trying to change our whole racial, social, religious, and political order, but they
will not change the debt-money economic system by which they rob and rule. Our people have become tenants and
"debt-slaves" to the Bankers and their agents in the land our fathers conquered. It is conquest through the most gigantic
fraud and swindle in the history of mankind. And we remind you again: The key to their wealth and power over us is their
ability to create "money" out of nothing and lend it to us at interest. If they had not been allowed to do that, they would
never have gained secret control of our nation. "The rich ruleth over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the lender"
(Proverbs 22:7). 

Let us now consider the correct method of providing the medium of exchange (money) needed by our people. 

INTEREST-FREE MONEY
History tells us of debt-free and interest-free money issued by governments. The American colonies did it in the 1700's and
their wealth soon rivaled England and brought restrictions from Parliament, which led to the Revolutionary War. Abraham
Lincoln did it in 1863 to help finance the Civil War. He was later assassinated by an agent of the Rothschild Bank. No
debt-free or interest-free money has been issued in America since then. Several Arab nations issue interest-free loans to
their citizens today. The Saracen Empire for bad interest on money for 1,000 years, and its wealth outshone even Saxon
Europe. Mandarin China issued its own money, interest-free and debt-free, and historians and collectors of art today
consider those centuries to be China's time of greatest wealth, culture and peace. 

Germany issued debt-free and interest-free money from 1935 and on, accounting for its startling rise from the depression to
a world power in 5 years. Germany financed its entire government and war operation from 1935 to 1945 without debt, and it
took the whole Capitalist and Communist world to destroy the German power over Europe and bring Europe back under the
heel of the Bankers. Such history of money does not even appear in the textbooks of public (government) schools today. 

Issuing money which doesn't have to be paid back in interest leaves the money available to use in the exchange of goods
and services and its only continuing cost is replacement as the paper wears out. Money is the paper ticket by which such
transfers are made and should always be in sufficient quantity to transfer all possible production of the nation to ultimate
consumers. 

It is as ridiculous for a nation to say to its citizens, "You must consume less because we are short of money," as it would
be for an Airline to say "Our planes are flying, but we can't take you because we are short of tickets." 

NO MORE BANKERS' PLUNDER
Under the present debt-usury system, the extra burden of usury forces workers and businesses to demand more money for
the work and goods to pay their ever-increasing debts and taxes. This increase in prices and wages is called "inflation."
Bankers, politicians and "economists" blame it on everything but the real cause, which is the usury levied on money and
debt by the Bankers. This "inflation" benefits the money-lenders, since it wipes out savings of one generation so they
cannot finance or help the next generation, who must then borrow from the money-lenders, and pay a large part of their
life's labor to the usurer. 

With an adequate supply of interest-free money, little borrowing would be required and prices would be established by
people and goods, not by debts and usury. 

CITIZEN CONTROL 
If the Federal Congress failed to act, or acted wrongly, in the supply of money, the citizens would use the ballot or recall
petition to replace those who prevented correct action with others whom the people believe would pursue a better money
policy. Since the creation of money and its issuance in sufficient quantity would be one of the few functions of Congress,
the voter could decide on a candidate by his stand on money, instead of the hundreds of lesser, and deliberately
confusing, subjects which are presented to us today. And since money is, and would remain, a national function, local
differences or local factions would not be able to sway the people from the nation's (citizens') interest. All other problems,
except the nation's defense, would be taken care of in the State, County, or City governments where they are best handled
and most easily corrected. 

An adequate national defense would be provided by the same citizen-controlled Congress, and there would be no Bankers
behind the scenes, bribing politicians to give $200 billion of American military equipment to other nations, disarming us,
while alien nations prepare to attack and invade the United States of America. 

A DEBT-FREE AMERICA 
With debt-free and interest-free money, there would be no high and confiscatory taxation, our homes would be mortgage
free with no $10,000-a-year payments to the Bankers, nor would they get $1,000 to $2,500 per year from every automobile on
our roads. We would need no "easy payment" plans, "revolving" charge accounts, loans to pay medical or hospital bills,
loans to pay taxes, loans to pay for burials, loans to pay loans, nor any of the thousand and one usury-bearing loans which
now suck the life-blood of American families. There would be no unemployment, divorces caused by debt, destitute old
people, or mounting crime, and even the so-called "deprived" classes would be deprived of neither job nor money to buy
the necessities of life. 

Criminals could not become politicians, nor would politicians become criminals in the pay of the Money-lenders. Our
officials, at all government levels, would be working for the people instead of devising means to spend more money to
place us further in debt to the Bankers. We would get out of the entangling foreign alliances that have engulfed us in four
major wars and scores of minor wars since the Federal Reserve Act was passed, alliances which are now used to prevent
America from preparing her own defense in the face of mounting danger from alien powers. 

A debt-free America would mean mothers would not have to work. With mother at home, juvenile delinquency would
decrease rapidly. The elimination of the usury and debt would be the equivalent of a 50% raise in the purchasing power of
every worker. With this cancellation of all debts, the return to the people of all the property and wealth the parasitic
Bankers and their quasi-legal agents have stolen by usury and fraud, and the ending of their theft of $300 Billion (or more)
every year from the people, America would be prosperous and powerful beyond the wildest dreams of its citizens today.
And we would be at peace! (For a Bible example of cancellation of debts to money lenders and restoration of property and
money to the people, read Nehemiah 5: 1-13.) 

WHY YOU HAVEN'T KNOWN 
We realize this small, and necessarily incomplete, article on money may be charged with oversimplification. Some may say
that if it is that simple the people would have known about it, and it could not have happened. But this MONEY-LENDERS'
consPIRACY is as old as Babylon, and even in America it dates far back before the year 1913. Actually, 1913 may be
considered the year in which their previous plans came to fruition, and the way opened for complete economic conquest of
our people. The consPIRACY is old enough in America so that its agents have been, for many years, in positions such as
newspaper publishers, editors, columnists, church ministers, university presidents, professors, textbook writers, labor
union leaders, movie makers, radio and TV commentators, politicians from school board members to U.S. presidents, and
many others. 

CONTROLLED NEWS AND INFORMATION 
These agents control the information available to our people. They manipulate public opinion, elect whom they will locally
and nationally, and never expose the crooked money system. They promote school bonds, municipal bonds, expensive and
detrimental farm programs, "urban renewal," foreign aid, and many other schemes which will put the people more into debt
to the Bankers. Thoughtful citizens wonder why billions are spent on one program and billions on another which may
duplicate it or even nullify it, such as paying some farmers not to raise crops, while at the same time building dams or
canals to irrigate more farm land. Crazy or stupid? Neither. The goal is more debt. Thousand of government-sponsored
ways to waste money go on continually. Most make no sense, but they are never exposed for what they really are, builders
of "billions for the bankers and debts for the people." 

So-called "economic experts" write syndicated columns in hundreds of newspapers, craftily designed to prevent the people
from learning the simple truth about our money system. Commentators on radio and TV, preachers, educators, and
politicians blame the people as wasteful, lazy, or, spend-thrift, and blame the workers, and consumers for the increase in
debts and the inflation of prices, when they know the cause is the debt-money system itself. Our people are literally
drowned in charges and counter-charges designed to confuse them and keep them from understanding the
unconstitutional and evil money-system that is so efficiently and silently robbing the farmers, the workers, and the
businessmen of the fruits of their labors and of their freedoms. 

When some few Patriotic people or organizations who know the truth begin to expose them or try to stop any of their mad
schemes, they are ridiculed and smeared as "right-wing extremists," "super-patriots," "ultra-rightists," "bigots," "racists,"
even "fascists" and "anti-Semites." Any name is used which will cause them to shut up or will at least stop other people
from listening to the warning they are giving. Articles and books such as you are now reading are kept out of schools,
libraries, and book stores. 

Some, who are especially vocal in their exposure of the treason against our people, are harassed by government agencies
such as the EPA, OSHA, the IRS, and others, causing them financial loss or bankruptcy. Using the above methods, they
have been completely successful in preventing most Americans from learning the things you have read in this pamphlet.
However, in spite of their control of information, they realize many citizens are learning the truth. Therefore, to prevent
violence or armed resistance to their plunder of America, they plan to register all firearms and eventually to disarm all
citizens. They have to eliminate most guns, except those in the hands of their government police and army. 

TELL THE PEOPLE
The "almost hidden" conspirators in politics, religion, education, entertainment, and the news media are working for a
Banker-owned United States in a Banker-owned world under a Banker-owned World Governments! 

Love of Country and concern for your children should make you deeply interested in this, America's greatest problem, for
our generation has not suffered under the "yoke" as the coming generations will. Usury and taxes will continue to take a
larger and larger part of the annual earnings of the people and put them into the pockets of the Bankers and their political
Agents. Increasing "government" regulations will prevent citizen protest and opposition to their control. Is it possible that
your grandchildren will own neither home nor car, but will live in "government-owned" apartments and ride to work in
"government-owned" buses (both paying usury to the Bankers), AND BE ALLOWED TO KEEP JUST ENOUGH OF THEIR
EARNINGS TO BUY A MINIMUM OF FOOD AND CLOTHING while their Rulers wallow in luxury? In Asia and eastern
Europe it is called "communism;" in America it is called "Democracy" and "Capitalism." 

America will not shake off her Banker-controlled dictatorship as long as the people are ignorant of the hidden controllers.
International financiers, who control most of the governments of the nations, and most sources of information, seem to
have us completely within their grasp. They are afraid of only one thing: an awakened Patriotic Citizenry, armed with the
truth, and with a trust, in Almighty God for deliverance. This article has given you the truth about their iniquitous system.
What you do with it is in your hands. 

AUDIT THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM? 
The Federal Reserve has never been audited by the government since it took over our money and credit in 1913. In 1975 a
bill, H.R. 4316, to require an audit was introduced in Congress. 

During the April, 1975 hearings, this author submitted a statement favoring the audit, as did many others. Due to pressure
from the money controllers, it was not passed. No audit of the Fed has ever been made. 

WHY HAVEN'T THEY TOLD YOU?
Why haven't they told you about this scandal - the greatest fraud in history which has caused Americans and others to
spill oceans of blood, pay trillions of dollars interest on fraudulent loans and burden themselves with unnecessary taxes? 

Who are "they"? "They" are most of the politicians of the two old parties and elected officials. Most "educational" groups
like the League of Women Voters, the Heritage Foundation and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). All mainstream
news services, such as the Associated Press and the United Press International. All mainstream daily newspapers,
including the New York Times and Los Angeles Times. All mainstream weekly "news" magazines, such as "Time" and
"Newsweek." All of the above and more have been hiding the truth from you. 

WHAT SOME FAMOUS MEN HAVE SAID ABOUT THE MONEY QUESTION 

ALAN GREENSPAN: "In the absence of the gold standard, there is no way to protect savings from
confiscation through inflation. ... This is the shabby secret of the welfare statists' tirades against gold.
Deficit spending is simply a scheme for the confiscation of wealth. Gold stands in the way of this insidious
process. It stands as a protector of property rights. If one grasps this, one has no difficulty in
understanding the statists' antagonism toward the gold standard." 

PRESIDENT THOMAS JEFFERSON: "The system of banking [is] a blot left in all our Constitutions,
which, if not covered, will end in their destruction... I sincerely believe that banking institutions are more
dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity... is but
swindling futurity on a large scale." 

PRESIDENT JAMES A. GARFIELD: "Whoever controls the volume of money in any country is absolute
master of all industry and commerce". 

CONGRESSMAN LOUIS McFADDEN: "The Federal Reserve(Banks) are one of the most corrupt
institutions the world has ever seen. There is not a man within the sound of my voice who does not know
that this Nation is run by the International Bankers". 

HORACE GREELEY: "While boasting of our noble deeds were careful to conceal the ugly fact that by an
iniquitous money system we have nationalized a system of oppression which, though more refined, is not
less cruel than the old system of chattel slavery. 

THOMAS A. EDISON: "People who will not turn a shovel full of dirt on the project (Muscle Shoals Dam)
nor contribute a pound of material, will collect more money from the United States than will the People
who supply all the material and do all the work. This is the terrible thing about interest ...But here is the
point: If the Nation can issue a dollar bond it can issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond
good makes the bill good also. The difference between the bond and the bill is that the bond lets the
money broker collect twice the amount of the bond and an additional 20%. Whereas the currency, the
honest sort provided by the Constitution pays nobody but those who contribute in some useful way. It is
absurd to say our Country can issue bonds and cannot issue currency. Both are promises to pay, but one
fattens the usurer and the other helps the People."

PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON: "A great industrial Nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our
system of credit is concentrated. The growth of the Nation and all our activities are in the hands of a few
men. We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated
Governments in the world - no longer a Government of free opinion no longer a Government by
conviction and vote of the majority, but a Government by the opinion and duress of small groups of
dominant men". (Just before he died, Wilson is reported to have stated to friends that he had been
"deceived" and that "I have betrayed my Country". He referred to the Federal Reserve Act passed during
his Presidency.) 

SIR JOSIAH STAMP,(President of the Bank of England in the 1920's, the second richest man in Britain):
"Banking was conceived in iniquity and was born in sin. The Bankers own the earth. Take it away from
them, but leave them the power to create deposits, and with the flick of the pen they will create enough
deposits to buy it back again. However, take it away from them, and all the great fortunes like mine will
disappear and they ought to disappear, for this would be a happier and better world to live in. But, if you
wish to remain the slaves of Bankers and pay the cost of your own slavery, let them continue to create
deposits". 

MAJOR L .L. B. ANGUS: "The modern Banking system manufactures money out of nothing. The process is
perhaps the most astounding piece of sleight of hand that was ever invented. Banks can in fact inflate,
mint and unmint the modern ledger-entry currency". 

RALPH M. HAWTREY (Former Secretary of the British Treasury): "Banks lend by creating credit. They
create the means of payment out of nothing". 

ROBERT HEMPHILL (Credit Manager of Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta, Ga.): "This is a staggering
thought. We are completely dependent on the commercial Banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we
have in circulation, cash or credit. If the Banks create ample synthetic money we are prosperous; if not,
we starve. We are absolutely without a permanent money system. When one gets a complete grasp of the
picture, the tragic absurdity of our hopeless position is almost incredible, but there it is. It is the most
important subject intelligent persons can investigate and reflect upon. It is so important that our present
civilization may collapse unless it becomes widely understood and the defects remedied very soon". 

This study on money is not copyrighted. It may be reproduced in whole or in part for the purpose of helping the American
people. For more information on how you can eliminate all your credit card debt, please contact me.

Sincerely,

Chris Crawford
DSI Agent 
Website: http://www.drg.cc/chris
email: debtrelief@comcast.net
Phone: (610) 327-3284

================================================================
Occupation Forces Halt Elections Throughout Iraq 
By William Booth and Rajiv Chandrasekaran
Washington Post

Saturday 28 June 2003 

SAMARRA, Iraq -- U.S. military commanders have ordered a halt to local elections and
self-rule in provincial cities and towns across Iraq, choosing instead to install their own
handpicked mayors and administrators, many of whom are former Iraqi military leaders.

The decision to deny Iraqis a direct role in selecting municipal governments is creating anger
and resentment among aspiring leaders and ordinary citizens, who say the U.S.-led occupation
forces are not making good on their promise to bring greater freedom and democracy to a
country dominated for three decades by Saddam Hussein.

The go-slow approach to representative government in at least a dozen provincial cities is
especially frustrating to younger, middle-class professionals who say they want to help their
communities emerge from postwar chaos and to let, as one put it, "Iraqis make decisions for
Iraq."

"They give us a general," said Bahith Sattar, a biology teacher and tribal leader in Samarra
who was a candidate for mayor until that election was canceled last week. "What does that tell
you, eh? First of all, an Iraqi general? They lost the last three wars! They're not even good
generals. And they know nothing about running a city."

The most recent order to stop planning for elections was made by Maj. Gen. Ray Odierno,
commander of the 4th Infantry Division, which controls the northern half of Iraq. It follows similar
decisions by the 3rd Infantry Division in central Iraq and those of British commanders in the
south.

In the capital, Baghdad, U.S. officials never scheduled elections for a city government, but
have said they are forming neighborhood councils that at some point will play a role in the
selection of a municipal government.

L. Paul Bremer, the civil administrator of Iraq, said in an interview that there is "no blanket
prohibition" against self-rule. "I'm not opposed to it, but I want to do it a way that takes care of
our concerns. . . . Elections that are held too early can be destructive. It's got to be done very
carefully." 

Iraqi critics of the policy shift say the American and British forces are primarily hurting
themselves by smothering aspiring leaders who would benefit from the chance to work more
closely with Westerners. In addition, they say the occupation authorities are fostering a
dependent, passive mindset among Iraqis and leaving no one but themselves to blame for the
crime, faltering electricity and general misrule Iraqis see in their daily lives.

Sattar, the would-be candidate in Samarra, said: "The new mayors do not have to be perfect.
But I think that by allowing us to establish our own governments, many of the problems today
would be solved. If you ask most Iraqis today if they have a government, they will tell you, no,
what we have is an occupation, and that is a dangerous thing for the people to think." 

Occupation authorities initially envisioned the creation of local assemblies, composed of
several hundred delegates who would represent a city or town's tribes, clergy, middle class,
women and ethnic groups. Those delegates would select a mayor and city council.

That process was employed successfully in the northern city of Kirkuk, but U.S. civilian and
military occupation officials now say postwar chaos has left Iraq unprepared to stage popular
elections in most cities.

"In a postwar situation like this, if you start holding elections, the people who are rejectionists
tend to win," Bremer said. "It's often the best-organized who win, and the best-organized right
now are the former Baathists and to some extent the Islamists." Bremer was referring to
members of Hussein's Baath Party and religiously oriented political leaders.

Bremer and other U.S. officials are fearful that Islamic leaders such as Moqtada Sadr, a
young Shiite Muslim cleric popular on the streets of Baghdad, and Ayatollah Mohammed Bakir
Hakim, leader of the Iranian-supported Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq, would be
best positioned to field winning candidates. 

Bremer promises that as soon as an Iraqi constitution is written and a national census is
taken, local and national elections will follow. But that process could take months.

Ten weeks into the occupation, the cities and towns outside of Baghdad are largely
administered by former Iraqi military and police officers and people who had close ties to the
Baath Party. Iraqi generals and police colonels, for example, are now mayors of a dozen cities,
including Samarra, Najaf, Tikrit, Balad and Baqubah.

The U.S. military contends that these people have been vetted and were not in leadership
positions under the old government or associated with crimes it committed.

In Najaf last week, several hundred demonstrators took to the streets to demand elections
and the removal of Mayor Abdul Munim Abud, a former artillery colonel. The protesters' banners
read: "Canceled elections are evidence of bad intentions" and "O America, where are promises
of freedom, elections, and democracy?"

At Friday prayers in Najaf, Sadr told the faithful at the shrine of Imam Ali, "I call for free
elections that will represent all Iraqi opinion, far away from the influence of those who have
intervened." 

In Samarra, a two-hour drive north of Baghdad, the selection of a new mayor and city council
by delegates was postponed twice, and finally canceled late last week. "There will be no
elections for the foreseeable future," said Sgt. Jeff Butler of the U.S. Army's 418th Civil Affairs
Battalion from Kansas City, Mo., which is charged with running Samarra.

Butler said the city had been planning a caucus to pick a mayor when the order came down
from Maj. Gen. Odierno. "He said, basically, stop," Butler said.

A timetable for elections in Samarra, Butler said, "is six months at least, but I'm just
guessing."

Butler said he sympathized with Iraqis who are upset over the cancellation of the elections.
"We would like to see some kind of democratic system, too," he said. But for now, he said, the
Iraqis need to be satisfied with "baby steps."

Like almost all of the Army civil affairs soldiers in Iraq, Butler and his six-man team do not
speak Arabic, and are confronted with a bewildering environment in Samarra that includes seven
major and 14 minor tribal sheiks -- plus Muslim clergy and a more secular middle class that is
trying to steer clear of rule by either the religious leaders or the tribes.

The current mayor of Samarra is Shakir Mahmud Mohammad, a retired general in the Iraqi
army, who came into power here in April as U.S. forces arrived in the city. Mohammad was
selected by a council representing the seven major tribes in and around Samarra, and by most
accounts did an admirable job keeping order in the city in the postwar weeks.

Mohammad, whose brother was executed by Hussein, now runs the city with the help of
another brother and another former army commander, who serve as his deputies. Butler
described Mohammad as "a very personable guy, with a decent amount of legitimacy, and he is
basically somebody we thought we can work with." 

But many citizens in Samarra, which has a large middle class and a large drug manufacturing
plant, and is unusually prosperous for an Iraqi town, have complained about Mohammad. 

In Hussein's home town of Tikrit, the American in charge is Army Lt. Col. Steve Russell,
whose mission is not to establish democracy in the region, but to hunt down remnants of the
former government and others who are attacking U.S. troops.

That is understandable, said Nabel Darwish Mohamed, the mayor of nearby Balad, who is a
former colonel in the Iraqi police corps. "But the American soldiers must understand that
security comes also from giving the people their own leaders, their own powers. That will calm
things down, I think." 

Mohammad added, "Fine, we embrace the Americans, we want to see the security. But we
want them to move aside and let us have our own voices. We have waited a long time for this
and we are growing tired of the waiting, okay?" 

(In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, this material is distributed without profit to
those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and
educational purposes.)

==================================================================

India Organic Expert Slams Gene
Giants' Lies on Feeding the Poor

GM WATCH daily: http://www.ngin.org.uk June 29, 2003 --- 

"If they are really sincere in fighting malnutrition, they should ensure that the 50
million tonnes of food grains that is rotting in the open is first fed to the hungry. And
before you ask me why, let me tell you that over 25 million tones of food that is
stocked and rotting comprises wheat, which contains four time more proteins than
potatoes." --- From Pomato to Protato BENDING IT UNLIKE BECKHAM By
Devinder Sharma I was taken by surprise. 

The BBC Radio presenter, who was busy talking about football star Beckham,
suddenly shifts to genetically modified potato, and tells his listeners that he has a
food policy analyst on line from New Delhi. And before I respond to his greetings,
he fires the first googly: "When will you stop treating the multinational corporations
as wicked?" Knowing that it was a live and a popular breakfast programme, I had
little time to react. "I think this question should be directed to the multinationals," I
replied, adding "as far as I am concerned, I would stop treating them as wicked
the day they stop acting wickedly." While I was still drawing the link between
multinational corporations and the GM potato being researched in India, the
commentator asked: "Why are you opposed to the this GM potato which is
reported to contain 40 per cent more proteins that could be the answer to India's
mounting problem of malnutrition?" "Who gave you these fake protein figures?" I
asked, explaining "the GM potato that is under research contains not more than
2.8 per cent protein, a mere increase of 0.6 to 0.8 per cent protein than what
exists in the normal potatoes." Well, this is what has been claimed by the
secretary of Department of Biotechnology, he quipped, adding "but don't you think
that even a little increase in proteins would help?" "What a shame. 

Those who talk of addressing the acute malnutrition crisis by feeding GM potatoes
containing 2.8 per cent proteins must be living in a fool's paradise," I reacted
angrily. "If they are really sincere in fighting malnutrition, they should ensure that
the 50 million tonnes of foodgrains that is rotting in the open is first fed to the
hungry. And before you ask me why, let me tell you that over 25 million tones of
food that is stocked and rotting comprises wheat, which contains four time more
proteins than potatoes." A couple of more questions and the live interview ended.
The BBC presenter turned back to more juicy stuff on Beckham, his interest in
India's hunger and malnutrition being as superficial as that of the biotechnologists. 

But no sooner I was back in my office, another reporter was on line, this time from
Paris. He too was seeking my reaction to the claims made by Mrs Manju Sharma,
secretary Department of Biotechnology. In three days, after Mrs Manju Sharma
had made the tall (but false) claims at an international conference in France, the
global print and electronic media had literally chased the story as if it was likely to
lead the way to unearth the 'weapons of mass destruction". And that reminds me
of another obtuse research claim that had donned the front pages of newspapers
in the early 1980s. Scientists had succeeded in crossing potato with tomato - and
they called it pomato - hoping that it would increase the shelf life of tomatoes.

The skin of the tomato would become thicker and that would mean that
housewives would not have to throw over-ripe tomatoes every other day. Many
newspapers had come out with editorials praising the effort of the scientists,
probably meant to make for light reading. Mercifully, we did not hear of the
'scientific' feat again... The scientific world has certainly come a long way since
the days of pomato..

In the days of genetic engineering, when all kinds of permutation and combinations
are being ruthlessly tried by the neo-breed of biotechnologists, and with the
multi-billion dollar biotechnology industry waiting for a miracle to rescue its flagging
reputation, protato -- as the GM potato is called - is being promoted as the magic
bullet. Scientists are giving an impression as if they finally have the technological
remedy to fight the scourge of mankind - silent hunger. 

The well-known Indian agricultural scientist, Dr M.S.Swaminathan, too has
sounded a word of caution. Addressing an international conference on "Right to
Food and the Cost of Hunger' that concluded recently at Rome, he said:
"Malnutrition cannot be eradicated by providing Vit A, Iron or Iodine. A
malnourished body requires a complete balanced food packet that builds up its
ability to absorb nutrients. The greatest challenge therefore is to first provide food
to the hungry. Any other approach will be ineffective in meeting the needs of
nutritional security." 'Hidden hunger' or 'silent hunger', as it is called, is however
the new buzzword in the scientific echelons. 

Thirty years after the advent of green revolution technology, scientists are
rediscovering the importance of nutritional security for masses. The desperation is
not in reality aimed at addressing the problems of 'hidden hunger' but more tuned
to according public acceptance to the controversial science and technology of
genetic engineering. Such is the haste to promote the faulty technologies that Mrs
Manju Sharma has even gone to the extent of saying that she would push for
protato to be included in the mid-day meal programme for school children. Potato
would sprout before they reach the school children. 

And wheat, which is lying stacked under the sun, contains on an average eight to
nine per cent proteins -- roughly four times more than what protato contains - and
that too without any harmful effects associated with GM foods. It would make
terrible economic sense, if the biotechnologists were for once to forget the 'novel'
foods under preparation and urge the government to speed up food distribution
among the hungry masses. After all, bulk of the surplus foodgrains that lie stocked
in the open have already turned into cattle feed.

Biotechnologists too are a part of the society, and cannot simply shrug-off their
responsibility by blaming the government for food mismanagement. Let us try to
understand the reasons for growing malnutrition. For an average Indian, the
common menu revolves around dal and roti. While the roti is easily accessible (if
you had the purchasing power), the availability of dal has been on a continuous
decline. Pulses being the crop of marginal areas, were ideally suitable for the
rainfed areas, which account for 70 per cent of the country's land under plough. 

Pulses require very less water and are known to enrich the soil by fixing
atmospheric nitrogen. The neglect of pulses pushed the prices of the common dal
beyond the reach of an average Indian, with the result that micronutrient deficiency
continued to grow. Pulses on an average contain 20-24 per cent protein. Any effort
to increase the production of pulses would have helped reduce the prices thereby
making it easily accessible. It didn't happen. Instead, the country, which
consumes the largest quantity of pulses gradually turned into a major importer. 

India today imports pulses in large quantities from Australia and Canada. Such
were the lopsided policies that in fact, at one stage, India was contemplating
'contract farming' for pulses in Africa to meet the country's need. There has been
no effort at all to encourage the domestic farmers to cultivate pulses, and pull the
crop out from the marginal areas. As a result, pulses output continues to hover
around 14 million tonnes. If only the money that is being wasted on fruitless
application of genetic engineering - like the protato - were to be diverted for
research on pulses, the country can build a real sustained answer to malnutrition.
Potato, on an average, contains 1.98 per cent protein. Even if its availability has
been enhanced by a third, the protein percentage comes to 2.8 per cent. How will
this 'protein-rich' potato help solve malnutrition in the country? 

How will the country's nutritional security be addressed? Biotechnology cannot be
left in the hands of trigger-happy scientists who are excited at the use and abuse
of something called a gene gun. Like the trigger-happy terrorists, biotechnologists
continue to blast alien genes into any crop they lay their hands upon without
realising the utility of such a futile exercise. Learn to bend it like Beckham. #
(Devinder Sharma is a New Delhi-based food and trade policy analyst.
Responses can be mailed at: dsharma@ndf.vsnl.net.in) 

===============================================================

Deliberate Contamination of EU
Food with Monsanto's GMOs
Provokes Anger

http://www.sundayherald.com/34928 

UK GM-free food 'is contaminated' 

Campaigners accuse US-based multinationals of holding the world to ransom in
order to promote their products 

By Rob Edwards, 

Environment Editor, 

Sunday Herald, 29 June 2003 

Food on sale in Britain labelled 'GM-free' has been contaminated with genetically
modified soya made by US multinational Monsanto, a new survey by the food
safety watchdog reveals. The contamination is condemned by GM critics as being
part of a deliberate campaign by the American biotechnology industry, backed by
the administration of President George Bush, to force feed GM food to unwilling
consumers in Britain and around the world. 

The latest tactic is to insist that African countries who want help in combating the
Aids epidemic must accept GM food. Bush has also accused Europe of
prolonging famine in Africa by encouraging opposition to GM food. 'The ploy of the
US government and biotechnology industry is to force GM food onto the world
market either by stealth or bullying. People should be worried that their food is
contaminated,' said Adrian Bebb from Friends of the Earth Europe. 

In a series of checks on the labelling of GM foods for the European Commission,
the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) has just tested a wide range of foods for
the presence of GM organisms. It detected traces of GM in eight soya products,
including beans, flour and protein concentrate.In three samples -- textured
vegetable protein, vegetable protein mince and protein isolate -- they found GM
soya despite the fact that the products were labelled 'GM-free'. GM soya, known
as 'roundup ready', is made and marketed by Monsanto. The FSA didn't say
precisely which brands of which foodstuffs were contaminated by GM. But it
pointed out that a wide variety of food was derived from soya, including bread,
pizza bases, tofu and meat substitutes.. The levels found were all under 1% and
hence within European labelling regulations, which are up for review by the
European parliament this week. 

Nevertheless, manufacturers were warned by local authorities to improve their
labelling, and one product was withdrawn. The contamination occurs because GM
crops are grown next to non-GM crops and in the processing and manufacturing it
is difficult to separate them. This means that Monsanto's GM soya, one of the
world's biggest GM crops, is steadily infiltrating all soya production. But the
contamination of conventional food is seen by GM opponents as just one of the
weapons deployed by the GM industry to win markets for its products. Obliging
developing countries to accept GM food aid is another. 

The US Congress has recently passed a new law which for the first time links GM
food aid with assistance in fighting HIV/Aids, the sexually transmitted disease
which is killing millions across the African continent. 'United States food 
assistance should be accepted by countries with large populations of individuals
infected or living with HIV/Aids, particularly African countries, in order to help feed
such individuals,' the legislation says. This has provoked fury among
environmental groups in Africa. 'The US should stop playing with hunger,' said
Nnimmo Bassey, director of Environmental Rights Action in Nigeria. 'African
nations should have the right to decide what their people are fed. It is immoral for
the US to exploit famine and the Aids crisis in this way.' Over the past two years
there have been a series of clashes between the Bush administration and African
countries over the provision of GM food as aid. Zambia rejected any GM food,
while Mozambique and Zimbabwe turned down GM corn grain but had to accept
milled GM corn. Bush now blames opposition in Europe for stirring up
unwarranted alarm about the safety of GM products among African nations. At a
biotechnology industry conference in Washington DC last week, he accused
European governments of blocking the import of GM crops 'based on unfounded
and unscientific fears'. 

As a result, many African nations were afraid to use GM crops for fear that they
would not get access to European markets, he argued. 'For the sake of a
continent threatened by famine, I urge the European governments to end their 
opposition to biotechnology.' The US government has lodged a formal complaint
with the World Trade Organisation (WTO) about the European Union's five-year
moratorium on GM food. Earlier this month, it ended negotiations aimed at
resolving the dispute, and referred the matter to a WTO arbitration panel. 'Food
aid is being used, particularly by the US, as a marketing tool to capture new
markets. Big agribusinesses are huge beneficiaries of the current food aid
system,' alleged Ricardo Navarro, the Salvadorean chairman of Friends of the
Earth International. 'GM crops are not the solution to hunger. 

If Bush wanted to tackle hunger he would be answering the real causes of
hunger, like poverty, debt, lack of infrastructure that make it impossible for small
farmers to compete in world markets.' His accusation is backed up by a new
study of GM food in Africa by Aaron deGrassi from the University of Sussex's
Institute of Development Studies. DeGrassi argued that the introduction of crops
such as GM sweet potatoes, GM cotton and GM maize has not led to any major 
environmental or economic gains. 'There has been a great deal of excitement over
these new engineered crops despite their low sustainability. 

The maximum gains from genetic modification are small, much lower than with
either conventional breeding or agroecology based techniques,' he concluded.
DeGrassi highlighted several examples in which multinational GM companies
have used a handful of relatively well-off African farmers to promote GM in
sceptical developed countries. He recounted how last month Monsanto flew four
black pro-GM South African farmers to speak at a London conference. He said:
'Biotechnology firms have been eager to use philanthropic African projects for
public relations purposes. 

Such public legitimacy may be needed by companies in their attempts to reduce
trade restrictions, biosafety controls and monopoly regulations.' The
accusations are, however, rejected by Monsanto and the other biotechnology
multinationals such as Bayer, DuPont and BASF. 'Nobody has ever claimed that
GM is the answer to world hunger. What we would say is that it has a part to play,'
argued Tony Combes, Monsanto UK's director of corporate affairs and
spokesman for the UK GM industry's Agricultural Biotechnology Council. He
pointed out that nearly six million farmers in 16 countries planted GM crops in
2002, three-quarters of them in developing countries. 'That's not us, the
multinationals, forcing anything down anybody's throat. They've got a choice,' he
said.

The contamination of GM food on sale in Britain was an inevitable fact of life when
GM crops were grown beside conventional crops, and was within legal limits,
Combes added. 'You can't have zero thresholds on anything.' Not surprisingly,
the industry's arguments failed to convince the Green's environment spokesman
in the Scottish parliament, Mark Ruskell. He is promoting a bill to make GM
companies legally liable for any contamination they cause. 'As far as the US and
the biotechnology companies are concerned the GM debate doesn't exist -- you
will eat it and you will grow it,' he said. 

The UK government is currently sponsoring a debate on the future of GM foods,
but it has been widely attacked as a sham with a predetermined pro-GM outcome.
'If GM is commercialised in Scotland, widespread contamination will turn
consumer against farmer, and farmer against farmer. The legacy of Scottish
Executive and Westminster inaction on GM will be the biggest erosion of the rights
of consumers and farmers ever seen in Scotland,' declared Ruskell. 'Only strict
liability for the harmful effects of GM placed at the door of the GM companies will
force them to confront the defects of their own technology head on.'