Blacks Also Owned Miles of  US Pre-Columbian Lands

By Paul Barton, editorial, TOMRIC Agency (Dar es Salaam), 25
May 2001 Washington D.C. 

One of the saddest aspects of enslavement in the Americas, particular North America, is the fact that all forms of education was denied us and still is today. Blacks were forced to remain ignorant and told they have no history or culture. 

Well, here is the problem, most African-Americans are still void of historical knowledge particularly of their ownership to lands right here in the U.S. 

Blacks owned about one million square miles of land in the Louisiana Territories and the South Eastern/Florida region, as well as California. In all these areas of the U.S., there were Black African-American nations before Columbus, who were targeted for enslavement due to the Papal Edict that gave the Christian nations of Europe the go-ahead to make slaves of all descendants of Ham found in the newly discovered lands This fact cannot be denied. The essay on Black Civilizations of Ancient America, published as the great book; Susu Economics the History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth, tells a reality of this. 

While many of Africans? ancestors were kidnapped in Africa, many were Africans who came from West
Africa, had a number of kingdoms and empires in the Southern parts of the U.S., and who were captured, had their lands taken and their persons sold into slavery. These Africans were direct black ancestors and their had a continuing connection with West Africa which included trade and commerce on the very eve of the invasion of the Europeans to the Americas. 

In 1991, the U.S. returned about 68,000 square acres of land to the Washitaw Nation of Louisiana, one of the prehistoric Black nations of the United States (See www.hotep.org). This group of Blacks is the evidence of the Black ownership of land and the Black presence before English and Spanish/French colonization of North America. 

Many Blacks living today are descended from the pre-Columbian Black nations and it is time that issue is
included in the reparation discussion. They should locate who are the descendants of these pre-Columbian African nations in the U.S. (perhaps the entire mixed African-American population, since most of these Black tribes were enslaved and shipped to plantations and mixed with Blacks from Africa). 

When discussing reparations, they must realize that more than the actual performance of slave labor was
involved. The taking of Blacks aboriginal lands in North America was also involved in this great trade, which was part of a grand conspiracy by the European powers, in which they used biblical mythology to promote their policies. 

Black researchers should do the work necessary to find the documentation proving that as recently as the
1800?s, the U.S. fought with a Black nation in California called the ?Black Californians, and that that Black nation ended up on slave plantations in the U.S., while others were sent to salt mines in Mexico. 

The French and Spanish have documentation on the Black Washitaw Nation who once owned much of the annexed Louisiana Territories. In fact, the Washitaw Nation regard the states of Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma and Mississippi as Washitaw Proper, and as of this very moment, the Washitaw Nation is recognized by nations around the world as one of the most ancient nations in the Americas (See
www.hotep.org). 

According to the present leadership of the Washitaw Empire, the Wasitaw are the descendants of prehistoric African sea farers who settled in the Mississippi Valley Region and the Southern U.S., thousands of years Before Christ. They were boat builders, builders of pyramid mounds, Seafarers and practiced agriculture. 

According to an article, www.wanoline.com (see also We Are The Washitaw, the Washitaw originally came from Africa and were Africans. The Washitaw are still African Negritic peoples and they, like many of the ancient Blacks who live in the Americas became victims of the Papal Edict which opened the way for the colonialization of the New World and the taking of people into slavery and occupation of their lands. 

The Washitaw build hundreds of earthen pyramid mounds all over the southern and midwestern parts of the U.S. Some, such as the mound at Poverty Point in Louisiana is one of the most sacred sites of the Washitaw. Skeletons found in Washitaw gravesites from the pre-Columbian period show a tall people with characteristics similar to Africans. 

It is time to get to do a thorough job on the reparation issue. What need to be done is not discussing how to parcel out the money we may receive, but how to gain lands taken from our ancestors and how to create a nation of independent minded people who will use their skills to rebuild the Black nation in America and return to the glorious renaissance Blacks had right here in the U.S., Mexico and Africa before European colonialism. 

Copyright ? 2001 TOMRIC Agency. Distributed by AllAfrica Global Media (allAfrica.com).

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African Presence In America Before Columbus

http://members.aol.com/carltred/AfricanPresence.htm

http://www.humanities.ualberta.ca/history111/African_discovery_america.htm

The Following is an e-mail essay sent to an African List serve:

----- Original Message -----

From: Minister Faust minister@oanet.com

To: zemariam@istar.ca

Sent: Wednesday, February 07, 2001 6:55 AM

Subject: African Explorers in Pre-Columbian America

Who came first, Columbus?

The Long Trail of Evidence of African Explorers in Pre-Columbian America

By Hisham Aidi

According to Malian historian and playwright Gaoussou Diawara, Africans may have "discovered" America nearly two centuries before Christopher Columbus's famous landing. In his forthcoming book, The Saga of Abubakari II... He left with 2000 Boats, Diawara describes an African monarch who abdicated his throne in 1311 and set off to discover whether the Atlantic Ocean, likethe vast River Niger, "had another bank." Diawara contends that in 1312 Abubakari II, who ruled over a vast West African empire including modern-day Mali, landed in Recife, on the coast of Brazil. The scholar, who heads a research project dedicated to exploringthe history and heritage of Abubakari II, marshals considerable archaeological and linguistic evidence demonstrating the African presence in pre-Columbian America.

He's not the first to do so. The thesis of an early African presence in the Americas was prominently advanced by Guyana-born anthropologist Ivan Van Sertima in his 1977 book, They Came Before Columbus. Van Sertima argues that Africans reached the Americas in two stages. The first wave, ancient Egyptians and Nubians, reached the Gulf of Mexico around 1200 BCE and 800 BCE, respectively, bringing with them writing and pyramid-building. Centuries later, around 1310 CE, the Mande people of West Africa went to Mexico, Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru and various Caribbean islands, according to Van Sertima. The Olmec stone heads of Mexico, which have astonishingly African features, are among the archaeological and linguistic evidence Van Sertima presents. Van Sertima describes how, according to Columbus's own writings, the people living on the island of Hispaniola (later Haiti and the Dominican Republic) told him that "black-skinned people had come from the south and southeast trading in gold-tipped metal spears. Columbus sent samples of these spears back to Spain to be tested, and they were found to be identical in their proportions of gold, silver and copper alloys to spears then being forged in African Guinea. Columbus' son, Ferdinand, said his father told him that he had seen black people north of what is now Honduras." The evidence, Van Sertima concludes, "argues overwhelmingly against a mere coincidence." Indeed, the idea that Columbus was not the first person from across the ocean to "discover" the Americas is commonplace, and shared by the Society of American Archaeology, which declared in 1968 that "there cannot be now any question, but that there were visitors to the New World from the Old in historic or even prehistoric time before 1492."

But did they come from Africa? Unlike theories that Viking explorers from Northern Europe arrived on the North American continent hundreds of years before Columbus-theories that are debated but generally treated with cautious respect-Van Sertima's assertions drew angry fire from those who disagreed. A New York Times reviewer dismissed Van Sertima as a "deluded scholar" writing "ignorant rubbish" with "abysmal" historical and research methods. Students of Meso-America have also strongly disputed Van Sertima's characterization of the Olmec people as African. David Grove, an expert on Olmec civilization, notes that Van Sertima's claims about the Olmecs' blackness are suspect because "the Olmecs did not have a selection of skin tones to choose from in making their monuments. The only stone available to them was black stone.

The source of the stone is the Tuxlas Mountains, of volcanic origin." A particularly caustic critique, titled "Van Sertima's Afrocentricity and the Olmecs," even scoffed that "native Americans would have sacrificed and eaten the Africans if they came."

Such attacks don't surprise [White writer] Richard Poe, the author of Black Spark, White Fire: Did African Explorers Civilize Ancient Europe?, which addresses the possibility of Africans taking transatlantic trips before Columbus. "Ivan Van Sertima is a courageous and brilliant scholar, who has done ground-breaking work," says Poe. "His findings have never received the fair hearing that they deserve. Rather than refuting his arguments, Van Sertima's critics habitually resort to mean-spirited, personal attacks. The anger and indignation his theories provoke seems to go beyond mere scholarly disagreement." Such fierceness, Poe says, has a lot to do with race-black scholars generally embraced Van Sertima's work. "Consciously or unconsciously, some of Van Sertima's critics may still be clinging to the 19th-century notion that seafaring is a European monopoly," he says. "Seafaring is the quintessential European achievement, the single endeavor of which we are most proud. It was seafaring that enabled Europe to conquer the world. White people have a deep sense of themselves as explorers.

The idea that black Africans might have beaten us to the New World threatens our sense of ownership over the seas. Maybe it's a bit like the way some black people dislike hearing white musicians do rap. A hundred years ago, it was common for scholars to claim that peoples of so-called 'Aryan' or Nordic race possessed a peculiar combination of courage and wanderlust that made them natural sailors. Non-Aryans were viewed as poor sailors, even when the evidence proved otherwise-as in the case of the Egyptians, who are known to have made long sea voyages to Somalia, Crete, Greece and probably beyond." The evidence, Diawara argues, can still be found in Africa. Both Van Sertima and Diawara say that Mali's griots (oral historians) tell of the African king who sent an expedition to the "Western Ocean." His voyage is mentioned not only in the griots' narratives, but also in Arabic texts, including a 14th century Egyptian book by the historian al-Omari. In an interview with the BBC, Tiemoko Konate, one of the researchers working with Diawara, offered other evidence of Abubakari's landing in Recife, Brazil: "Its [Recife's] other name is Purnanbuco, which we believe is an aberration of the Mande name for the rich gold fields that accounted for much of the wealth of the Mali Empire, Boure Bambouk." Konate also cites tests, similar to those Van Sertima described, showing that the gold tips of spears found by Columbus in the Americas may be made of originally West African gold. In an interview with Emerge magazine, Van Sertima argued that the Atlantic's currents serve as natural marine conveyer belts: "Once you enter them, you are transported (even against your will, even with no navigational skill) from one bank of the ocean to the other," he said. "Thor Heyerdahl crossed the Atlantic in 1969 in a papyrus boat like those built by Africans before the time of Christ. Hannes Lindemann crossed the Atlantic in an African dugout in 12 days less than it took Amerigo Vespucci or Columbus to cross. Three currents can carry Africans to the Americas: off the Cape Verde islands, off the Senegambia coast, and off the southern coast of Africa. It is at the end of these currents that we have found Africans in America before Columbus."

Interestingly, Diawara thinks that the story of Abubakari II, who apparently never returned to Africa, has important lessons to offer Africans today-particularly African leaders in the states that used to constitute the ancient Malian empire. "Look at what's going on in all the remnants of that empire, in Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea," Diawara said in a BBC interview. "Politicians are bathing their countries in blood, setting them on fire just so that they can cling to power. They should take an example from Abubakari II. He was a far more powerful man than any of them. And he was willing to give it all up in the name of science and discovery. That should be a lesson for everyone in Africa today."